From the first days of Google's existence, employees doubted the need for managers, as it was believed that the company was created by engineer-programmers who did not want to waste time communicating with management and controlling their colleagues.
A few years after the company's founding, Larry Page and Sergey Brin wondered whether Google needed managers at all. In 2002, they created a flat organizational structure, eliminating all managers, but a few months later, they abandoned their idea. They came to the conclusion that managers help employees follow the team's overall strategy, prioritize tasks, support career growth, and synchronize individual goals with the company's goals.
Later, in 2008, Google's People Innovation Lab launched Project Oxygen, a long-term research initiative. Since then, it has turned into a comprehensive program that evaluates key managers and develops them through communication and training. By November 2012, many employees had gone through this methodology, and the company has since demonstrated significant improvements in many areas of managerial effectiveness and productivity.